SEAWEED FARM

Seaweed farming is the practice of cultivating and harvesting seaweed. In its simplest form, it consists of the management of naturally found batches. In its most advanced form, it consists of fully controlling the life cycle of the algae. The main food species grown by aquaculture in Japan, China and Korea includeGelidium, Pterocladia,[1]Porphyra,[2]andLaminaria.[3]Seaweed farming has frequently been developed as an alternative to improve economic conditions and to reduce fishing pressure and over exploited fisheries. Seaweeds have been harvested throughout the world as a foods ource as well as an export commodity for production of agar and carrageenan products..Seaweed farming began in Japan as early as 1670 in Tokyo Bay.[2] In autumn of each year, farmers would throw bamboo branches into shallow, muddy water, where the spores of the seaweed would collect. A few weeks later these branches would be moved to a river estuary. The nutrients from  the river would help the seaweed to grow.[2]

In the 1940s, the Japanese improved this method by placing nets of synthetic material tied to bamboo poles. This effectively doubled the production.[2] A cheaper variant of this method is called the hibi method — simple ropes stretched between bamboo poles.

Several environmental problems can result from seaweed farming. Sometimes seaweed farmers cut down mangroves to use as stakes for their ropes. This, however, negatively affects the farming since it reduces the water quality and mangrove biodiversity due to depletion. Farmers may also sometimes remove eelgrass from their farming areas. This, however, is also discouraged, as it adversely affects water quality.[10]

Seaweed farming helps to preserve coral reefs[11] by increasing diversity where The algae and seaweed have been introduced and it also provides added niche for local species of fish and invertebrates. Farming may be beneficial by increasing the production of herbivorous fishes and shellfish in the area.[12]Pollnac et al. (1997b)[13]reported an increase in population after the start of extensive farming of Eucheuma seaweed in villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Seaweed culture can also be usedto capture, absorb, and eventually incorporate excessive nutrients  into living tissue. “Nutrient bio extraction” is the preferred term for bioremediation involving cultured plants and animals. Nutrient bio extraction (also called bio harvesting) is the practice of farming and harvesting shellfish and seaweed for the purpose of removing nitrogen and other nutrients from natural water bodies.[14] (See main article Nutrientpollution.)

And in Nusa Lembongan and Penida is common to meet these structures are combined with the wonderful scenery along the coast.

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seaweed

CULTIVO DE ALGAS

El cultivo de algas o alguicultura es una forma de acuicultura que se preocupa del cultivo de especies de algas. La mayoría de las algas cultivadas caen dentro de la categoría de microalgas, entre la que se encuentran el fitoplancton, las micrófitas, etc.

Presumiblemente, el primer uso de las algas fue como comida. Un ejemplo es la envoltura del sushi. La industria de gomas marinas o ficocoloides requiere de la producción sostenida de algas marinas, las cuales en su mayoría provienen de granjas en el mar. En las regiones tropicales, el cultivo de algas marinas tiene un gran impacto socioeconómico debido a que genera empleo directo a más de 60 mil familias en el SE de Asia (principalmente Filipinas, Indonesia, Malasia y Vietnam), África Oriental y más recientemente en la India. La principal especie que se cultiva es el alga roja Kappaphycusalvarezii productora de kappa-carragenina, una goma o coloide de amplio uso como estabilizante en la industria de alimentos, cosméticos y medicamentos.

Los métodos y sistemas de cultivo de algas empleados en mar abierto son simples y económicos, ya que no requieren los insumos tradicionales de la agricultura, evitando el uso de fertilizantes y pesticidas. Se usan balsas flotantes de madera y PVC con cuerdas de polipropileno para sujetar los implantes que crecen de manera vegetativa con ciclos de producción que varían entre 4 y 6 semanas, dependiendo de la fertilidad de lugar, la época del año y la cepa utilizada.

Desde el punto de vista ambiental y ecólogico, el cultivo de algas marinas sirve de sustrato y refugio a muchas especies de peces e invertebrados que cumplen parte de su ciclo de vida, las algas además generan oxígeno disuelto aumentando la productividad primaria.

Alrededor de NusaLembongan y Penida es comun encontrarse con estas estructuras que se combinan con el maravilloso paisaje a lo largo de la costa.

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